旅行者工作台,可调节脚和橡木腿

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简介:带有可调脚和缝制橡木腿的旅行者工作台

About: I like building things mainly from wood or metal. Especially if they look complicated to make, then I like to think about how to make it. And I love it when the result looks good.

我的工作室里有一个很好的工作台。它很大,坚固且固定在墙上,所以我不能将其带到外面。但是现在又是春天,我喜欢在外面享受阳光。因此,有一个旅行者工作台,我可以在天气非常好时很容易滚动,这将是很棒的。

I go to a friend at least once a week to help him with the restoration of a car and at his place I also would like to work outside in the sun. Unfortunately his workbench is also absolutely not mobile, so I would like to take my workbench also to his workshop.

因此,我想要一个满足我所有需求的小型旅行者工作台:

  • 它应该是坚固的。
  • 它应该是移动的。
  • 腿的高度应调节,因此即使外面的地面不均匀,工作台也不会摇摆。
  • It should have a flat top without holes, so I can work on small parts and they cannot fall through the holes.
  • It should be stable even when I work with a vise.
  • 我必须能够在不到5分钟的时间内组装和拆卸。
  • The individual components should not be very heavy, so I can easily put the disassembled workbench in my car.
  • 当我不使用工作台时,不应占用太多存储空间。
  • 我应该能够使用简单的工具来制作它,因为我没有桌子锯或斜切锯。
  • 它不应该花很多钱。
  • I want it to look good.
  • 最重要的是:我也应该喜欢设计和制造这个工作台的过程。

I looked at the internet as there are many examples of workbenches, but none of them was exactly what I wanted, so that is why I made my own.

Supplies

Many people make their workbench from 2x4s and plywood. But here in The Netherlands it is quite expensive to buy wood in the hardware store. A single 2x4 costs 18 euros, which is almost 20 US dollars.

We do have many stores where they sell used furniture, including tables for a fraction of the original price. The tables are usually outdated and the finish is not perfect anymore, but the condition of the wood is still very good.

When I decided that I wanted to make a workbench, I went to the store and found this old dining table, made of solid oak for just 65 Euros, so for the same amount of money as I would have to pay for four 2x4s.

桌子为190 x 90厘米,高80厘米(75 x 35英寸宽,高31英寸)。腿是10x10 cm(4x4英寸),因此,如果您没有旧的橡木桌,也可以从2x4和胶合板中制成我的工作台,因为两个2x4的尺寸与我桌子的腿完全相同。


除了这张我使用的旧桌子:

  • 2个杯垫
  • 一些螺钉,螺母和螺栓
  • Black spray paint
  • Oil

步骤1:它的工作原理:组装

在描述我如何设计和制作这个工作台之前,让我首先解释它是如何组装的。

由于我希望工作台适合汽车并占用很少的存储空间,因此我将其设计为四个可以堆叠在彼此上的平坦件。我有两条腿,一个底部架子和一个顶部。

组装起来,我双腿直立。Then I take the bottom shelf and place it on the lowest side of the legs. There are 4 holes in the bottom shelf that match with 4 bolts that are present on the legs. After putting the bottom shelf on the legs, I add the 4 nuts loosely, so the legs can still move a bit. Then I take the top and put it on top of the legs. I have holes for bolts and since I did not yet tighten the nuts at the bottom, I can align the top with the holes in the legs and insert the bolts. Finally I tighten the 4 bolts at the top and the 4 nuts at the bottom and then the workbench is assembled and very sturdy.

组装只需要几分钟。

步骤2:设计(1)

由于我买了一张旧餐桌作为木材的来源,因此我首先将其拆开,因此我确切地知道我可以在设计中使用的尺寸。主要的挑战是腿的长度。餐桌低于工作台,因此腿太短,无法在每个角处使用4腿的标准设计。我考虑了一下,想出了只有两条腿的想法,所以我可以通过将水平零件放在腿下来提高每条腿的高度。

由于我想要一个旅行者工作台,因此必须轻松地安装在我的车上。因此,每个部分都应该很平坦,所以我可以堆叠它们。

步骤3:设计(2)

我花了近一天的时间从事设计。首先,我在纸上制作了一些粗略的草图,但是当我对如何制作工作台有一个一般的了解时,我用Fusion 360制作了更详细的图纸。

在这个项目之前,我从未与Fusion 360合作,所以我还花了一天的时间观看教程并习惯了该程序。当然,我仍然是Fusion 360的初学者,但它可以使设计可视化很多。

现在,我将首先描述如何制作顶部和底部架子。然后,我将描述腿部的设计细节以及如何使腿做。之后,我将描述我如何设计可调节的脚以及如何制作它们。

So let's now start actually building the workbench.

步骤4:切割顶部和底部架子

我用圆形锯和简单的夹具将大桌面切成小块。

我添加了Fusion360图纸的屏幕截图,其中显示了整个桌面,呈棕色和绿色。红线是我用圆形锯进行的切割。我在该项目中使用了棕色零件,现在不需要绿色零件,因此我将把它们保留为未来的项目。

我将一些木头放在桌面下面,以防止我在地板上切下来。如您所见,我将桌子倒置放置在切割时,作为圆形锯的切割往往会使底部看起来更好。

The table top was 110 x 52 cm (43" x 20") and 3 cm (1.25") thick.

底部的架子为90 x 38厘米(35“ x 15”),当然也厚3厘米(1.25英寸)。

我还从桌面上切下了4英尺和2个腿的顶部。您可以看到图纸上的所有尺寸。

Step 5: Removing a Small Piece From the Bottom Shelf

当我希望底部的架子适合腿部时,我不得不从每一侧卸下10x10 cm(4x4“)的正方形。我在广场的角落附近钻了一个孔,并用夹具锯将两个角落。夹具锯在这橡树上挣扎,所以我没有强迫它。

步骤6:打磨和涂油

由于我使用了一张旧桌子,因此桌面有一些亮点,看起来旧了。我打磨了其中的一个,并施加了一些油,并将其与我尚未治疗的部分进行了比较。我喜欢新的饰面,所以我为工作台和底部架子打磨了顶部。我没有使用砂机,就像我在以前的项目中所经历的那样,使用机器实际上可能是更多的工作。这是因为旧的桌面不是完全平坦的,砂机不会很好地进入下部。我使用了一个40粒度,从皮带上切下皮带砂光机,以去除大部分旧污渍,并用砂带上的120粒度完成。手动打磨整个顶部和底部架子总共花费了约20分钟。

After sanding I removed the dust and then applied an oil.


Step 7: Design Details of the Legs

每条腿由四片橡木制成。在上面的图纸中,我显示了各个组件,因此更容易理解下一步。

双腿都是相同的。

步骤8:切腿

旧餐桌的腿长78厘米。我将其中两个保持在78厘米(31英寸)的长度,然后将其他两条腿切成50厘米(20英寸)。

The 50 cm long pieces will be used horizontally and the 78 cm long pieces will be used vertically. I added a photo where the legs are joined already with the dimensions.

Step 9: Making the Lap Joint at the Bottom of the Legs

我首先使腿的水平底部制作。我想使用一个圈接头,因为这真的很强大。

Since the height of the legs was important and the table legs that I got were too short, I decided to make a partial lap joint to gain some height. The joint would be more difficult to make, but I would also learn more from doing it.

I had never made a lap joint before and actually I also do not really know how other people do it. I just marked the area that had to go and first made a cut with a saw at the sides. Then I used a drill to drill holes from the top and from the front, making sure that I stayed will within the lines. Then I used a hammer and chisel to first remove the large bits and then used the chisel to carefully remove the last bits of wood and to make smooth sides.

I did not want to get a loose joint so I made the gap at first a bit smaller than the final size.

Step 10: Lap Joint at the Vertical Part

This is the vertical part of the leg. Here I could use a saw to remove this corner. I carefully measured and marked the part that had to be removed and made the cut with a hand saw. Then I used a file to trim the part to the final size so I got a nice tight fit. It helps to have calipers available, to get good accurate measurements. I checked frequently if I already had a good fit, to make sure that I did not remove too much material.

Step 11: Drilling Holes

我加入了腿的两块,然后用钻头为螺钉制作孔。由于我使用的是橡木,因此我将无法先钻孔,而不会先钻孔。

我分了三个步骤制作了孔:

First I used a small size drill bit that is just slightly larger than the core of the screw and drilled both pieces with that.

然后,我再次卸下了腿的垂直部分,并使用了更大的钻头来增加孔的大小。该钻头比螺钉的线宽一点。这样,螺钉就可以滑入孔,并真正将木材信息拉到接头。

最后,我使用了一个弯曲钻头来确保螺钉的头略低于木材表面。


I made the second leg the same way as the first leg, with just one difference.

For the first leg, I immediately applied glue and added the screws, but for the second leg I did not, because it would be easier to make the adjustable legs while the leg could still be taken apart.

步骤12:它的工作原理:脚轮和可调腿

I only added the adjustable legs to one side of the workbench. The other side has casters, so I can carry the workbench at one side and use the casters to roll it around.

When I place the workbench somewhere, I have to raise only one corner a bit to fill the gap with the ground and make the workbench stand stable on four points, as it will always already be stable on three points.

我将更详细地解释如何在接下来的步骤之一中制作这些可调节的腿。

步骤13:添加脚和脚轮

我从桌面上的一块腿上切下腿。脚轮侧的脚为10x10厘米宽(4x4英寸)。

我用销钉和胶将脚固定在腿上。


另一侧的脚有两块:10x7厘米和10x3厘米。10x7厘米片将上下移动以调节高度,而10x3 cm片则是防止10x7 cm片会旋转的指南。这听起来还不清楚,但我希望在接下来的步骤中会变得更加清楚。

步骤14:调整高度的详细信息

在图纸中,我显示了可调脚的爆炸视图。在接下来的步骤中,我显示了如何制作它们。

步骤15:准备脚的方颈螺栓

I used M10 square neck bolts for the height adjustment, because they have a rounded head. I used a file to remove the square neck at the top of the bolts.

然后,我在脚上钻了一个大孔,因此螺栓的圆形头可以在这个孔中自由移动。

步骤16:制作脚的小金属板

我用一个小钢板和钻两个11毫米holes. Then I cut the metal to make 2 smaller pieces and I drilled two small holes for screw in each plate. I marked the plates with an A and a B, to align the holes that I drilled in the metal and in the wooden feet. Then I used a router to remove a bit of wood, so the metal plates and the screws will be flush with the top of the wood.

金属板的目的也使M10教练螺栓固定在脚上,但是以它们可以轻松旋转的方式。当应增加腿的高度时,M10螺栓会顺时针拧紧,因此螺栓的头部将腿的脚向下推。当M10螺栓逆时针逆时针时,螺栓要向上移动,并抬起金属板和脚,将其拉到腿上。

步骤17:保护钢免受生锈

I used carbon steel for the metal plates and to prevent that the steel will rust, I used a primer.

脚现在已经准备好了,但是我仍然必须准备腿。

步骤18:在腿上添加螺母

To be able to screw the M10 coach bolts up and down to raise and lower the feet, I needed M10 thread also in the leg.

I drilled a hole of 10.5 mm diameter through the horizontal part of the leg and at the top side I used a chisel to make a hole where a M10 nut will sit. It is important that it is a tight fit as the M10 nut should not be able to rotate.

I used a large 18 mm washer to keep the nut secured to the wood. I drilled 2 small holes in the washer so I could use screws to hold the washer in place. It is important that the screws are long and strong enough that they keep the washer firmly attached, so the holes for the screws should be pre-drilled as always, but the screws still should have enough thread to bite into the wood. When the leg is extended, 1/4 of the weight of the workbench and any impact from hammering, will try to push the washer upwards, so the screws have to hold it down.

(So far it worked fine, and if at some moment in the future the washers come loose, I can always replace them with a larger metal plate.)

Step 19: Finalizing the Adjustable Feet

I pushed the M10 square neck bolt through the leg and screwed the washer in place. Now the adjustable foot is under the leg.

我在方颈螺栓的线上拧了两个细M10螺母,并用两个尖头拧紧了两个小坚果。这样,它们充当螺栓头,使他们有可能向上或向下拧紧M10平方颈螺栓。

On the third photo I placed the leg upside down and glued the small oak piece next to the adjustable foot. That small piece acts as a guide so the foot will only move up and down as it cannot rotate.

步骤20:准备腿的顶部

在前一步中,我已经做了很大一部分腿,但是它们仍然看起来像是倒置的T。

Now it is time to make the top part of the legs.

我切4块,每块40厘米(10英寸)长。其中两个是用旧餐桌的顶部制成的,另外两个是由用于互连餐桌上腿部的担架制成的。用这些担架碰巧具有我需要的正确宽度。

我将碎片拧紧并粘合在一起,使它们可以安装在腿的垂直部分和顶部,如您在下一步中所见。

步骤21:切开腿的顶部

我从腿部垂直部分的顶部切出一块,以制作另一个关节。

在这里,测量要取出多少木材以获得良好的木材然后直接切直的木材也很重要。

Step 22: Glue and Screw

I drilled holes again, just like when I assembled the bottom part of the leg. Then I applied the glue and screwed the top part on the leg.

步骤23:刷木材以获得染色的效果

I like the grain structure of oak, but I did not want my workbench to look like an outdated piece of furniture, so I wanted to try something that I have not tried before.

I like the results of the Shou Sugi Ban technique, but that does not work very well on oak, so that is not an option.

An alternative method that does work on oak is called cerusing. Basically it means that a brush is used to remove the softer parts of the wood, so the structure of the grain is exposed and accentuated by using two different colors.

我用钢丝刷手动开始,但这需要大量的肘部油脂,因此我迅速切换到Angle Grinder上的电线轮。

Some advice:

  • 请勿将线轮固定在同一位置,因为如您在照片上看到的那样,很容易获得较暗的燃烧痕迹。这些燃烧的区域在我的最终结果中仍然有些可见,因此最好注意避免被烧毁的斑点。
  • 电线轮应与谷物平行移动。这似乎很容易,但是我仍然建议先制作一个测试件,以使如何移动角度磨床的感觉。

步骤24:喷漆腿

我删除了刷牙后出现的灰尘,并在金属上添加了胶带。然后,我用黑色油漆和两条腿喷涂的便宜嘎嘎罐。

I gave it two coats to make sure the paint really got into the grooves.

Step 25: Sanding the High Spots to Get the Cerused Effect

I let the spray paint dry and then used a 180 grid piece of emery paper to gently sand the legs. The black paint remained in the grooves and the natural oak was exposed again at the higher points of the grain.

我只打磨了每条腿的两个侧面,所以每条腿的另一侧完全保持黑色。

After sanding I added the same oil that I used before to protect the oak and to give it a slightly darker color.

步骤26:将底部架子固定在腿上(1)

When I took the dining table apart, I saw they used these threaded rods that have a thread for wood at one side and M10 thread at the other side. I decided to reuse these threaded rods for my workbench, but they were a bit to long. So I marked the right length and cut them to the size that I wanted.

然后,我从架子上钻了一个飞行员孔进入腿。然后,我取下了架子,将孔钻至正确的尺寸。架子上的孔必须比腿上的孔大,因为架子必须滑过线,而螺纹应咬入腿的木头。


Step 27: Attaching the Bottom Shelf to the Legs (2)

我用扳手将螺纹杆拧入木头。

然后,我将底部的架子放在螺纹杆的一部分上,该杆仍位于腿上,并添加了洗衣机和螺母并拧紧它们。感觉就像是一个非常坚固的联系。

Step 28: Attaching the Top to the Legs

简单的解决方案是一直钻孔到顶部和腿部,并使用普通的螺母和螺栓。但是,在工作台的顶部将有一个可见的螺栓,我想避免这种情况。因此,我对齐顶部,用一些夹具将其固定在适当的位置,并从下面钻了一个飞行员孔。我还使用红色标记在顶部的底面画一条线,因此很明显腿部的位置。

然后,我拿起工作台顶部,将其颠倒过来,钻了一个足够大的较大孔,以插入这些螺母。这些坚果在外部和内部有线。在内部,它是M8螺栓的正确线,在外部,它具有更粗糙的螺纹,因此可以将其拧入木材中。

Now I can use the M8 bolt to attach the legs to the workbench top, while there is nothing visible from the topside.

Step 29: Mounting the Casters

我放置了脚轮,使它们略微在地板上方,而不会触摸地板。然后,我标记了孔必须在哪里,钻了孔,将脚轮拧到腿上。

步骤30:结果

现在工作台已经准备好了。

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