如何使用tinkercad教授在线电路课程

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简介:如何使用Tinkercad教授在线电路课程

关于:科学伙伴的作家(www.sciencebuddies.org)和康奈尔大学的机械和航空航天工程学院的讲师。

你可能知道tinkercad.对于初学者友好的3D CAD程序,但它还包括一个在您的Web浏览器中运行的电路+ Arduino模拟器!我用过tinkercad在线和在线学院级别和介绍性制造空间研讨会w88体育。在这种说明中,我不仅会向您展示如何使用TinkerCad向您教授自己的介绍电路/ Arduino类,但请解释Tinkercad可能有用的各种场景。上面的视频提供了一个详细的演练,具有Tinkercad的屏幕录制,但我还包括截图和详细的书面说明在这方面的说明!

注意:如果您已准备好超越基础和更先进的Arduino编程,请退房这个播放列表

补给品:

电脑与互联网接入

第1步:什么是tinkercad电路?

Tinkercad电路是一个全功能的Arduino +电路模拟器,在您的Web浏览器中运行。您可以通过登录TinkerCad并单击左侧菜单中的电路来访问它(有时人们在首先默认到CAD程序以来,人们无法找到它)。虽然电路模拟器已经存在了几十年,但有免费的Web浏览器电路实验室, nearly all of them use "schematic view," with symbols that represent circuit components. These schematics will be familiar to people with engineering and physics backgrounds, but they're not great for beginners. Tinkercad provides a "breadboard view" with graphics that look like the physical circuit parts you would use in real life, which is a much more beginner-friendly approach. The ability to simulate an Arduino and run code directly in the web browser is an added bonus.

第2步:你什么时候应该使用tinkercad电路?

我发现了在以下任何一种方案中有用的tinkercad电路:

  • 在大型讲座中的主动学习/翻转课堂格式。我在康奈尔教授一个150名学生课程,传统上我们每周有两个讲座,学生只需观看教师在投影机上观看Arduino的arduino,那么他们会每周去一个实验室来做自己的手关于活动。拥有150名学生CRAM笔记本电脑+面包板+ Arduinos在小型演讲厅书桌上是不可行的,I can have them all bring laptops and use Tinkercad (note: check if your school's library or IT departments have loaner laptops for students who don't have them). This is a great way to introduce programming an Arduino and even basics like using a breadboard and a multimeter. Having the students follow along with me in lecture keeps them much more engaged.
  • 如果您必须在线在线教授电子产品/ Arduino课程,因此由于Covid-19大流行等的情况。虽然模拟永远不是真实硬件的完全替代,但如果您没有其他选项,它们肯定不会比任何内容更好。Tinkercad可以帮助您保留在线课程,而不是仅仅让学生被动地观看讲座。
  • For remote/online debugging of circuits. Thankfully, we were able to distribute physical Arduino kits for students to use at home during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, we found that TAs and students had a very difficult time debugging circuits over Zoom. It's hard to hold a breadboard up to a webcam and see what's going on. We had students rebuild their circuits in Tinkercad and then screen share in Zoom. This makes it MUCH easier to see all the connections and help debug. So, Tinkercad can be a good supplement even if you have hardware kits available for your class.
  • For introductory makerspace/library workshops (getting started with Arduino, circuits for non-engineers etc). Many people attending these workshops probably don't have their own Arduino at home. Tinkercad gives them a way to keep exploring and practicing what they learned without needing to spend any of their own money. Makerspaces/libraries may also choose to offer online classes anyway during non-pandemic times because of the convenience for people with busy work/school/family schedules etc.

对于这种指示的其余部分,我将如何接受我如何为后一种情况教授一小时课程。

第3步:开始课程

  • Tell people to create an account atwww.tinkercad.com.在课程开始之前。这将在开始时节省您的时间。
  • Share your screen in Zoom or whatever online platform you're using. Tell people that they should open their own browser tab so they can follow along with you. Most people probably don't have two monitors, so you'll need to go slow and pause frequently so they can switch back and forth between Zoom and their own Tinkercad window.
  • From the main Tinkercad page, click Circuits on the left, then click Create new Circuit toward the top. Tinkercad likes to give things funky random names - click the name in the upper left and give it something that will make sense when you come back to it in the future, like "My First Circuit."

Step 4: Basic LED Circuit

通过使它们构建基本的LED电路,让人们对界面感到满意。没有arduino!

  • 单击并拖动以将电路部件从右侧菜单带到编辑区域。
  • 单击任何组件导致启动电线。单击要点以将线路路由,并将其结束在另一个组件领域。
  • Click and drag parts to move them around, use the rotate button in the upper left to rotate them.
  • 使用滚轮放大和缩小。单击并拖动屏幕上的空白区域到平移。
  • If you lose your circuit, click the "Zoom to fit" button in the upper left, just below the rotate button.
  • 让每个人都使用9V电池,LED和1K电阻构建基本LED电路,如图所示。不要打扰解释欧姆的法律 - LED将亮起。
  • 确保LED的阳极连接到电池的正(红色)终端。
  • Explain wire color-coding: red for positive, black for negative. The other color doesn't really matter. As you build more complicated circuits, you may want to use other colors for other things (maybe one color for inputs and one color for outputs).
  • 按右上角的“开始模拟”按钮,LED应亮起。

Pause at this point and make sure everyone is caught up. If anyone has trouble, you can ask them to share their screen so you can help them debug.

第5步:可选:什么是微控制器?

For an intro class, people probably aren't quite sure what an Arduino really is, or what the difference is between a microcontroller and a computer. I usually explain it like this: a microcontroller is not the same as a computer. It only doesone thing。它没有操作系统,您不安装程序和游戏或检查您的电子邮件。它一次只运行一个程序。您的房屋可能有几十个微控制器 - 内部设备如微波炉,洗衣机/干燥机,洗碗机等。微控制器是控制按钮时会发生什么的大脑。我们刚刚使用始终开启的LED构建一个简单的电路。我们想编制可以自动转向和关闭我们的东西。这为各种更复杂的项目开辟了门,您可以使用微控制器,如机器人,家庭自动化和机动/ LED艺术项目。

第6步:添加Arduino

让每个人都开始一个新电路并添加一个Arduino:

  • 这是一个个人偏好的问题,但我不愿不要在组件菜单中使用“启动器”下的预设arduino +面包板电路。我喜欢在纵向方向上有面包板和arduino,所以写作是直立的。我也认为,了解如何自行地连接面包板电源和地面公交车,而不是为您提供Tinkercad。所以:
  • 将Arduino和面包板拖到编辑窗口中。您需要在组件列表中向下滚动以查找它们。
  • Rotate each one 90 degrees.
  • 将Arduino 5V引脚连接到面包板+总线。使电线红色。
  • Connect the Arduino GND pin to the breadboard - bus. Make the wire black.
  • 连接左侧和右侧总线,如图所示。
  • 强调整洁,颜色编码接线的重要性。许多学生只需单击直接点点并留下电线绿色。这变得凌乱了!

Again, this is a good checkpoint to stop and make sure everyone is caught up.

Step 7: Open the Code Editor

Click the Code button in the top right to open the code editor. I prefer to teach with the text editor, so that's what I'll use going forward, but if you want to focus more on the programming aspect, you can stick with the blocks editor. This is how I usually explain this code to people - don't worry about the details of C and the syntax with the curly brackets etc:

Arduino有一堆销。我们使用这些引脚与LED,电机,按钮,传感器等的东西接口。此代码正在进行的内容是告诉arduino我们将要使用引脚13作为输出来控制,以控制像按钮或传感器(Pinmode命令)。这只发生一次。然后,它将永远循环。请记住,这只有这一件事。没有离开这个循环去检查你的电子邮件。所有它确实都会打开LED(DigitalWrite命令)。然后它等待1000毫秒(1秒),关闭LED,然后等待另一秒钟。然后它重复。这就是它所做的一切,永远 - 把LED转到一秒钟,然后关闭一秒钟。

按开始模拟按钮并放大Arduino。你应该看到字母“l”闪烁旁边的小LED。这是一个内置LED,在Arduino上连接到引脚13.接下来,我们将添加外部LED。

Step 8: Connect External LED

Now, walk everyone through connecting an external LED. Stop the simulation and click the Code button again to switch back to editing the circuit.

  • 拖出一个LED
  • Rotate it 90 degrees
  • Connect it to the breadboard as shown
  • 将阳极(“弯曲的”腿)连接到引脚13.这是指出面包板孔的好时机,TinkerCad将为您突出。您不需要直接将电线直接运行到LED - 您可以将其放在面包板的同一行中。
  • 将带有LED阴极(直腿)的行从行连接到面包板接地总线。将值更改为220欧姆(再次,我通常不会在这一点上打扰欧姆的法律)。

再次单击开始模拟,外部LED应闪烁!如果人们遇到麻烦,暂停并让他们分享他们的屏幕以获得一些调试帮助。

第9步:添加更多LED!

现在是有趣的部分。挑战您的参与者使用他们所学到的内容来添加另一个LED。You can keep this very structured (e.g. "add an LED to pin 12 and make it blink at the same time as the first LED") or make it more open ended (e.g. "add another LED to any pin you want and make it blink however you want"). The screenshot above shows the simple former case. But, for example, you could make the LEDs blink out of sync (so one is on while the other is off), make three LEDs for a traffic-light style blinker, etc.

The important think to note here is that participants can do this JUST by copy/pasting existing lines of code, and copying the wiring for the initial LED. They don't need to write any code or wire any new circuits from scratch. I've found that people who are完全地Arduino和电路的新手通常可以在几分钟内弄清楚这一点,但确保您支持/鼓励并帮助人们陷入困境。你想把它们带到那个“啊,我做到了”的成功时刻!

步骤10:可选:按钮

如果您有时间剩余,则可以介绍按钮。这里的上下文是LED是一个输出。许多微控制器项目也涉及输入- 不只是按钮,但其他传感器可以测量有关环境的环境,如温度,力或距离。输入是制作互动项目的关键。

上图显示了屏幕截图和示例代码。同样,在启动器下有一个内置的演示,但我不愿意使用它,因为按钮不在面包板上,并且练习使用面包板很重要。您需要通过正确连接按钮的机制行走人们,因为这一开始就会混淆。确保您放大,以便清楚地看到所有连接。

一旦你已经添加了一个按钮,你可以dd an open-ended challenge here, like adding a second button to control a different LED.

第11步:结论

许多人可能对他们可以去的地方有疑问,或者他们可以在哪里购买自己的零件。对于初学者,您可以将它们指向Tinkercad的内置教程。返回主TinkerCad页面,单击顶部的学习,然后在下拉菜单中从“3D”切换到“电路”。然后,您可以单击开始启动器,课程和项目(您必须为Arduino的项目一直到项目 - 我发现这里有点令人困惑的命名约定)。对于部分,我通常会指出人们Sparkfun.andadafruit.,因为他们有很多好的教程,并且如果您在亚马逊上购买随机部件,那么将提供更好的客户支持。

那是 - 我希望你找到这个有用的!如果您对使用Tinkercad进行疑问或您自己的故事来在线教授,请在下面发表评论。

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